What is peristaltic pump?
A peristaltic pump is a type of positive displacement pump that uses a flexible tube or hose, often made of rubber or silicone, to move a fluid or liquid. The tube or hose is pinched closed by rollers or shoes, creating a sealed chamber that contains the fluid. The rollers or shoes then move along the length of the tube or hose, compressing and releasing it in a manner similar to the way that food is moved through the digestive system by the rhythmic contraction and relaxation of muscles, a process called peristalsis. This action moves the fluid through the tube or hose and out of the pump.
Peristaltic pumps are often used for applications that require precise control of flow rate, accurate dosing, and the ability to handle delicate or sensitive fluids, as the fluid is only in contact with the tubing and the rollers, reducing the risk of contamination. They are used in a wide range of industries, including medical, chemical, food and beverage, and water treatment.
Peristaltic pumps can be classified as tubing pumps or hose pumps. Tubing pumps use a single tube and generally are less expensive, but have a shorter lifespan compared to hose pumps which use a reinforced hose that can withstand more wear and tear.
Working Of Peristatic Pump
The working principle of a peristaltic pump is based on the concept of positive displacement. The pump typically consists of a rotor with rollers or shoes that compress a flexible tube or hose containing the fluid to be pumped.
1. The rotor rotates and the rollers or shoes press against the tube or hose, creating a sealed chamber that contains the fluid.
2. As the rotor continues to rotate, the rollers or shoes move along the length of the tube or hose, compressing and releasing it in a peristaltic motion.
3. This action moves the fluid through the tube or hose and out of the pump.
The rollers or shoes in the pump head rotate around the tube, compressing and releasing it in a manner similar to the way that food is moved through the digestive system by the rhythmic contraction and relaxation of muscles, a process called peristalsis.
Peristaltic pumps are often used for applications that require precise control of flow rate, accurate dosing, and the ability to handle delicate or sensitive fluids, as the fluid is only in contact with the tubing and the rollers, reducing the risk of contamination. The flow rate can be adjusted by varying the speed of the rotor or by changing the size of the tubing or hose.
Peristaltic pumps are also self-priming, meaning they can start pumping a fluid without any prior filling. And they don’t need any valves and seals, which can be a source of leakage and contamination.
Main Components of a peristaltic pump
The main components of a peristaltic pump are:
1. Tube or Hose: This is the flexible component that contains the fluid being pumped. It is typically made of rubber, silicone, or other materials that can withstand the pressure and abrasion of the pumping process.
2. Rotor: This is the component that provides the mechanical action to move the fluid through the tube or hose. It typically consists of a shaft with rollers or shoes that press against the tube or hose.
3. Motor: This component provides the power to turn the rotor and drive the pumping action. Motors can be electric or pneumatic, and the speed of the motor can be adjusted to control the flow rate of the pump.
4. Drive system: This component connects the motor to the rotor, converting the rotary motion of the motor into the linear motion needed to drive the pumping action.
5. Pump head: This component holds the tube or hose in place and guides the rollers or shoes as they move along the length of the tube or hose.
6. Control system: This component allows for control of the pump, for example, a speed controller or a flow rate controller.
7. Mounting base: This component provides a stable base for the pump, allowing for easy installation and integration into existing systems.
8. Some peristaltic pumps may have additional components such as a pressure sensor, a flow sensor, and a liquid-level sensor. These sensors are used to monitor the system and provide feedback to the control system.
History Of peristaltic Pump
The history of peristaltic pumps specifically for water pumping is relatively recent. The peristaltic pump technology was initially developed for the medical and chemical industries, where the ability to handle delicate or sensitive fluids was important. It wasn’t until the late 20th century that peristaltic pumps began to be used for water pumping applications, particularly in the field of water treatment.
The first peristaltic water pumps were primarily used for dosing and metering small amounts of chemicals, such as chlorine and fluoride, into water systems. These early pumps were relatively simple in design and were driven by manual or electric motors.
As technology advanced, peristaltic pumps began to be used for more heavy-duty water pumping applications, such as in water treatment plants, irrigation systems, and even municipal water supply systems. The use of peristaltic pumps in water treatment, specifically, allowed for more accurate dosing of chemicals and a reduction in the risk of contamination.
Today, peristaltic pumps are increasingly being used for a variety of water pumping applications, particularly in remote areas where electricity is not available. They offer a simple and reliable solution for transferring and metering fluid, and are also commonly used in the field of agriculture and aquaculture.